African American History and Culture, 1877-1970

This guide is designed to show what kinds of materials are available at Hoole Library on topics related to African American history during the Jim Crow era, which starts with the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and ends in the 1960s, with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1960, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968. This scope was considered broadly, so the guide presents a mix of items which reflect daily life, act as an information source, or chronicle attitudes about race and related topics.

This list is thorough but not exhaustive. Use these resources as a starting point for your own searching of Scout (for published materials) and ArchivesSpace (for archival/unpublished materials).

These lists include

  • Both published and unpublished materials
  • Books and editions of books only from the period, except in the case of oral histories, which are often done after the fact
  • Items held by Hoole Library, as the aim of the list is to guide users to our particular holdings

Items designated with MSS or RG numbers are housed at Hoole Library. Items designated with W numbers can be found at the Williams Collection at Gorgas Library.

Links go to online finding aids and, where available, digitized items.


This section includes works that help contextualize what life was like for African Americans in the South and elsewhere. Some are works about Southern life or African American life, while others are examples of cultural trends.

1. General

Published Materials

Life in the South

  • Callaway, Elvy E. The Other Side of the South. D. Ryerson, 1934. [Hall Collection F215 .C25 1934x]
  • Clark, Thomas Dionysius. The Emerging South. Oxford University Press, 1961. [Alabama Collection F209 .C58]
  • Collins, Charles Wallace. Whither Solid South? A Study in Politics and Race Relations. Pelican, 1947. [Hall Collection F215 .C7 1947x]
  • Couch, W. T. Culture in the South. University of North Carolina Press, 1934. [Hall Collection F215 .C84]

In Pictures

  • Caldwell, Erskine, and Margaret Bourke-White. You Have Seen Their Faces. Viking, 1937. [Alabama Collection HD207 .C3 1937a]
  • Agee, James, and Walker Evans. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. Houghton Mifflin, 1941. [Alabama Collection F326 .A17]

Both works feature photographs of rural Southerners, black and white, especially sharecroppers, taken during the Depression. Caldwell was a popular Georgia novelist and Bourke-White was a photojournalist and editor from New York. Agee was a journalist and novelist from Tennessee and Evans, born in Missouri, was a photographer for the Farm Security Administration. All four were white.

  • Daniels, Jonathan. A Southerner Discovers the South. Macmillan, 1938. [Hall Collection F215 .D25]
  • Dollard, John. Caste and Class in a Southern Town. Harper, 1949. [Rare Collection F215 .D65 1949]
  • Dykeman, Wilma. Seeds of Southern Change. University of Chicago Press, 1962. [Hall Collection F215.A55 D9]
  • Hart, Albert Bushnell. The Southern South. D. Appleton and Co., 1910. [Alabama Collection F216 .A94]
  • Johnson, Gerald W. The Wasted Land. University of North Carolina Press, 1937. [Alabama Collection F215 .O285]
  • Kennedy, Stetson. Southern Exposure. Doubleday, 1946. [Hall Collection F215 .K33]

1930s Alabama

  • Carmer, Carl. Stars Fell on Alabama. The Literary Guild, 1934. [Alabama Collection F326 .C27 1934a]
  • Cason, Clarence. 90° in the Shade. University of North Carolina Press, 1935. [Alabama Collection F215 .C27]

Carmer was a New Yorker, but he spent six years in the South as a professor at the University of Alabama. This work recounts his travels in the state during that period, where he met ordinary Alabamians and took in a variety of experiences, many of them sensational. Cason was a native Alabamian, although he did leave the South for a time to work as a journalist. After his return to his alma mater, the University of Alabama, to teach journalism, he wrote this book of essays that took on many stereotypes about the South, especially those of blacks and poor whites.

  • Moore, John Monroe. The South To-Day. Missionary Education Movement of the United States and Canada, 1916. [Alabama Collection HC107 .A13 M7]
  • Smith, Lillian Eugenia. Killers of the Dream. Norton, 1949. [Hall Collection E185.61 .S64 1949x]
  • Tannenbaum, Frank. Darker Phases of the South. G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1924. [Alabama Collection HN79 .A2 T3]
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South, 1877-1913. Louisiana State University Press, 1951. [Hall Collection F215 .W85]

Migration and Life Outside the South

  • Arnesen, Eric. Black Protest and the Great Migration: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003. [Alabama Collection E185.6 .A76 2003]
  • Coles, Robert. The South Goes North. Little, Brown, 1971. [Hall Collection HC110.P6 C56 vol. 3]
  • Scott, Emmett J. Negro Migration During the War. Arno Press, 1969. [Hall Collection E185.9 .S42 1969]

Archival Materials

Click on the links below to see the finding aid (more detailed information) for the each collection.

    Color photo of a woman picking cotton
  • Marjorie L. Smith Cotton Slides (2007.004)
    • 71 color slides taken around Hayneville, Lowndes County, Alabama showing various stages of cotton production, from picking cotton by hand to machine harvesting and processing in the cotton gin to making the bales ready for market
  • Farm Security Administration Photographs (2009.093)
    • 80 photographs (copies) taken by the Farm Security Administration’s photographers of Alabama agriculture and industry during the Depression, with images of white and African American sharecropper families and homes, churches, schools and farm scenes, taken around Moundville, Eutaw, Selma, Scottsboro, Greensboro and Birmingham, Alabama.
  • Schaudies-Banks-Ragland photographs (2014.021)
    • 37 framed portraits and other photographs, most of men serving in World War I and World War II, many of them African American.
  • Photographic Album of African American Family (2016.002)
    • Photograph album of an African American family, probably from around the Washington, D.C., area, depicting everyday life, travels to Niagara Falls and Atlanta, and campus life at Claflin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina and other scenes from the countryside of South Carolina.
  • World War II photograph album (MSS.4091)
    • Album containing mainly 2.5″ x 2.5″ snapshots of an unidentified African American soldier during the 1940s
  • Woodward Family photographs (MSS.1577)
    • Nearly 2000 photographs, some personal, others showing the establishment of Woodward Iron Company industrial sites throughout Alabama, including industrial photos detailing construction, operation and the everyday lives and company towns of workers black and white.

Tuskegee Connections

  • William B. Shirdan papers (MSS.1266)
      Handwritten v-mail
    • Letters from this soldier who served in the 310th QM RHD Company during World War II to his family in Montgomery, Alabama.
  • William T. Demarest pamphlet (MSS.1816)
    • “The Alabama Obligation,” about conditions at a school for African Americans in Brewton Alabama during the early to mid twentieth century.
  • William C. Castleman Letter (MSS.2966)
    • A love letter from William Castleman in Sparta, Kentucky, to Lura C. Baker in Verona, Kentucky.
  • Matthews family papers (MSS.3387)
    • Letters written to and from members of the W. B. Matthews family in Atlanta, including one recommendation letter from W. E. B. DuBois, and a series of letters written by Joseph Cotter Jr. discuss race relations during World War I.


  • Brown Hill School Trustees’ minutes (MSS.0217)
    • Trustees’ minutes, covering 1916-1924 (including parents’ rolls), of this school for African-American students in Loachapoka, Lee County, Alabama.
  • Jennie B. Scott family papers (MSS.4108)
    • Papers of family that lived in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama in the latter half of the nineteenth century and through the mid-1960s.
  • Thelma O’Brien photographs and letter (MSS.4144)
    • photographs and snapshots from the estate of Thelma O’Brien of Boston, Massachusetts, and a letter from the assistant principal at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf giving Ms. O’Brien advice on employment.
  • Mary L. Scott Letters (MSS.2645)
    • Correspondence to Ms. Mary L. Scott, a teacher in Louisville, Kentucky, from three people along with a painting, two programs, and two felt pendants.
  • Church Life

      Page from the autograph book of Patti Julia Malone
    • Patti Julia Malone autograph album and papers (MSS.4169)
      • Autograph album that Ms. Malone took on various European tours with the Fisk Jubilee Singers between 1884 and 1891.
    • Henry Gant scrapbook (MSS.4172)
      • Scrapbook on the Gant family, particularly on Henry Gant and his sons, Eugene (Gene) and Tim.
    • James Smith U.S. Army discharge papers (W.0145)
      • Two forms discharging James Smith, an African American born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, from the United States Army Tenth Cavalry Regiment, in 1872.
    • Charlie J. Black papers (MSS.0167)
      • Photocopy of Black’s autobiography, “After The Fact: 20/20 Hindsight,” which covers Black’s youth in Beatrice, Monroe County, Alabama, his upbringing, education, teaching career, and political life in Washington.
    • Ada Belle Parker scrapbook (MSS.2962)
      • Scrapbook containing correspondence, newspaper clippings, and ephemera concerning civil rights, Christianity, and centenarians gathered by Ada Belle Parker.
    • Joseph C. Manning letters (MSS.3818)
      • Letters showing Manning’s efforts to stop the disenfranchisement of African American voters in Alabama in early twentieth century.

    2. Music, Food, and Literature


      Cover to Locke's The Negro and His Music
    • Baraka, Amiri. Blues People; Negro Music in White America. W. Morrow, 1963. [Hall Collection ML3556 .B16]
    • Courlander, Harold. Negro Folk Music, U.S.A. Columbia University Press, 1963. [Alabama Collection ML3556 .C7]
    • Fenner, Thomas P. Religious Folk Songs of the Negro: As Sung on the Plantations. Hampton Institute Press, 1916. [Rare Collection M1670 .H3 1927]
    • Handy, W. C. Collection of Negro Spirituals, for Mixed Voices, Male Voices, Also Vocal Solos with Piano Accompaniment, Vol. 1. Handy Bros. Music Co., 1938. [Alabama Collection M1670.H33 C6 v.1]
    • Johnson, James Weldon. The Book of American Negro Spirituals. Viking, 1925. [Hall Collection M1670 .J67]
    • Locke, Alain. The Negro and His Music: Negro Art: Past and Present. Arno Press, 1969. [Hall Collection ML3556.L6 N4 1969]
    • Odum, Howard Washington, and Guy Benton Johnson. The Negro and His Songs; a Study of Typical Negro Songs in the South. University of North Carolina Press, 1925. [Rare Collection ML3556 .O3]
    • Parrish, Lydia, and Creighton Churchill. Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands. Creative Age Press, 1942. [Rare Collection M1670.P236 S6]
    • Work, John Wesley. Folk Songs of the American Negro. Press of Fisk University, 1915. [Hall Collection ML3556 .W78]


      Cover of Mahalia Jackson Cooks Soul
    • Bowers, Lessie. Plantation Recipes. Robert Speller & Sons, 1959. [Lupton Collection TX715 .B76 1959]
    • De Knight, Freda. A Date with a Dish. Hermitage Press, 1948. [Lupton Collection TX715 .D325]
    • Eliza’s Cook Book. Wetzel Publishing Co. Inc., 1936. [Lupton Collection TX715 .N31 1936]
    • Gant, Bess. Bess Gant’s Cook Book. Murray & Gee, 1947. [Lupton Collection TX715 .G211 1947b]
    • Gaskins, Ruth. A Good Heart and a Light Hand. Simon and Schuster, 1970. [Lupton Collection TX715 .G243 1968]
    • Harwood, Jim, and Ed Callahan. Soul Food Cook Book. Nitty Gritty Productions, 1969. [Lupton Collection TX715 .H346 1969]
    • Mendes, Helen. African Heritage Cookbook. Macmillan, 1971. [Lupton Collection TX715 .M55 1971]
    • Mignon, Francois, and Clementine Hunter. Melrose Plantation Cookbook. Natchitoches, La., 1956. [Lupton Collection TX715 .M53 1956]
    • Richard, Lena. New Orleans Cook Book. Houghton Mifflin, 1940. [Lupton Collection TX715 .R502 1940]
    • Strobel, Pamela. Princess Pamela’s Soul Food Cookbook. New American Library, 1969. [Lupton Collection TX715 .P9348 1969]
    • Thurman, Sue Bailey. Historical Cookbook of the American Negro [1958]. Beacon Press, 2000. [Lupton Collection TX715 .H72323 2000]
    • West, Rebecca. Rebecca’s Cookbook. Washington, D.C., 1942. [Lupton Collection TX715 .W5 1942]



      Cover of Clarke's American Negro Short Stories
    • Bontemps, Arna, and Langston Hughes, eds. The Poetry of the Negro, 1746-1949: An Anthology. Doubleday, 1951. [Hall Collection PN6109.7 .H8 1951]
    • Bontemps, Arna, ed. American Negro Poetry. Hill and Wang, 1969. [Hall Collection PS591 .N4 B58 1969]
    • Clarke, John Henrick, ed. American Negro Short Stories. Hill and Wang, 1967. [Alabama Collection PS647 .A35 C52 1967x]
    • Cullen, Countee, ed. Caroling Dusk; An Anthology of Verse by Negro Poets. Harper and Bros., 1925. [Hall Collection PS3505.U287 C6 1925]
    • Hughes, Langston, ed. The Best Short Stories by Negro Writers. Little, Brown, 1967. [Hall Collection PS647 .N35B47 1967]
    • Johnson, James Weldon, ed. The Book of American Negro Poetry: Chosen and Edited, with an Essay on the Negro’s Creative Genius. Harcourt, Brace, 1931. [Alabama Collection PS591.N4 J6 1931]
    • Watkins, Sylvestre Cornelius, ed. Anthology of American Negro Literature. Modern Library, 1944. [Hall Collection PS508.N3 W3]

    Fiction and Folklore

      Title page and frontispiece of Hurston's Mules and Men
    • Baldwin, James. Go Tell it on the Mountain. Dial, 1963. [Rare Collection PS3552.A45 G59 1953x]
    • Bontemps, Arna, and Langston Hughes, eds. The Book of Negro Folklore. Dodd, Mead, 1958. [Hall Collection GR103 .H74]
    • Chesnutt, Charles W. The Wife of His Youth, and Other Stories of the Color Line. Houghton Mifflin, 1899. [Rare Collection PS1292.C6 W5 1899x]
    • Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Random House, 1951. [Hall Collection PS3509.E626 I5]
    • Hurston, Zora Neale. Mules and Men. J. B. Lippincott, 1935. [Alabama Collection GR103 .H8 1935]
    • McKay, Claude. Home to Harlem. Harper & Bros, 1928. [Rare Collection PS3525.A24785 H6 1928]
    • Toomer, Jean. Cane. Boni and Liveright, 1923. [Rare Collection PS3539.O478 C3 1923]
    • Wright, Richard. Uncle Tom’s Children. World, 1938. [Hall Collection PS3545.R815 U5 1938ax]
    • —. Native Son. New York: Harper & Bros, 1940. [Hall Collection PS3545.R815 N25 1940]


      Interior facing pages of Johnson's God's Trombones
    • Brooks, Gwendolyn. In the Mecca; Poems. Harper & Row, 1968. [Hall Collection PS3503.R7244 I5]
    • Brown, Sterling A. Southern Road. Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1932. [Hall Collection PS3503.R833 S6 1932]
    • Cullen, Countee. Color. Harper & Bros., 1925. [Rare Collection PS3505.U287 C6 1925]
    • Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Lyrics of Lowly Life. Dodd, Mead, 1896. [Hall Collection PS1556 .L6 1896x]
    • —. Poems of Cabin and Field. Dodd, Mead, 1900. [Hall Collection PS1556 .P6 1900]
    • Hughes, Langston. The Weary Blues. Knopf, 1926. [Hall Collection PS3515.U274 A6 1926]
    • Johnson, James Weldon. God’s Trombones; Seven Negro Sermons in Verse. Viking, 1927. [Hall Collection PS3519.O2625 G6 1927]
    • McKay, Claude. Harlem Shadows. Harcourt, Brace, 1922. [Hall Collection PS3525.A24785 H3 1922]


      Cover of Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun
    • Baraka, Amiri. Dutchman and The Slave; Two Plays. Morrow, 1964. [Hall Collection PS3552.A583 D8]
    • Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. New American Library, 1966. [Hall Collection PS3515.A515 R3 1966]
    • Hughes, Langston. Five Plays. Indiana University Press, 1963. [Hall Collection PS3515.U274 A19 1963]


    This section focuses on ideas and discourse about race and race relations. It includes the writings and philosophies of prominent African American leaders, thinkers, and scholars; materials focusing on the Civil Rights Movement, including groups like the NAACP and Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC); and materials from the forces the countered it, like the Ku Klux Klan and the Citizens Councils.

    From Black Writers

    Autobiography and Essays

      Cover of Parks's The Learning Tree
    • Carmichael, Stokely (Kwame Ture), and Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. Vintage, 1967. [Hall Collection E185.615 .C32 1967b]
    • Cleaver, Eldridge. Soul on Ice. Dell, 1968. [Hall Collection E185.97 .C6 1968]
    • Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. A. C. McClurg & Co., 1903. [Hall Collection E185.5 .D81 1903c]
    • Ellison, Ralph. Shadow and Act. Random House, 1964. [Hall Collection PS153.N5 E4 1964]
    • Hughes, Langston. I Wonder as I Wander: An Autobiographical Journey. Hill and Wang, 1964. [Hall Collection PS3515.U274 Z58 1964x]
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr. Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. Harper, 1958. [Alabama Collection E185.89.T8 K5]
    • —. Why We Can’t Wait. Harper & Row, 1964. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .K54]
    • Muhammad, Elijah. Message to the Blackman in America. Muhammad Mosque of Islam No. 2, 1965. [Rare Collection BP222 .E4]
    • Parks, Gordon. The Learning Tree. Fawcett, 1963. [Hall Collection PS3566.A73 L4 1963x]
    • Washington, Booker T. The Future of the American Negro. Philadelphia, 1899. [Alabama Collection E457.8 .W32 1899]
    • —. Up From Slavery. New York, 1901. [Alabama Collection E185.97 .W3]
    • Wright, Richard. Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth. Harper & Brothers, 1945. [Hall Collection PS3545.R815 Z5]
    • X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Grove Press, 1966. [Hall Collection E185.97.L5 A3 1966x]

    Writing Compilations

      Cover of Davis and Walden's On Being Black
    • Adoff, Arnold, ed. Black on Black: Commentaries by Black Americans. Collier, 1970. [Hall Collection E185.5 .B535 1970]
      • Pieces and excerpts from Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. Du Bois, Walter White, Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, Ted Poston, Gordon Parks, Loften Mitchell, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, Lerone Bennett Jr., Dick Gregory, Bill Russell, John Oliver Killens, John A. Williams, Malcolm X, Ossie Davis, Martin Luther King Jr., Robert F. Williams, LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) & Charles V. Hamilton, and Kenneth B. Clark
    • Davis, Charles T., and Daniel Walden, eds. On Being Black: Writings by Afro-Americans from Frederick Douglass to the Present. Fawcett, 1970. [Hall Collection PS508 .N3 D3 1970]
      1. First Stirrings: pieces and excerpts from Frederick Douglass, Charles W. Chesnutt, Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, James Weldon Johnson
      2. Coming of Age: pieces and excerpts from Alain Locke, Jean Toomer, Eric Walrond, Rudolph Fisher, Arna Bontemps, Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen
      3. Early Moderns: pieces and excerpts from Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, Sterling A. Brown, Langston Hughes, Margaret Walker, Melvin B. Tolson, Owen Dodson
      4. Today and Tomorrow: pieces and excerpts from LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), William Melvin Kelley, Eldridge Cleaver, Bayard Rustin, James Alan McPherson, David Henderson, Robert Hayden, Gwendolyn Brooks
    • The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of Today. J. Pott & Co., 1903. [Alabama Collection E185.5 .N39]
      • Booker T. Washington: “Industrial education for the Negro” — Du Bois, W. E. B.: “The talented tenth” — Charles W. Chesnutt: “The disfranchisement of the Negro” — W. H. Smith: “The Negro and the law” — H. T. Kealing: “The characteristics of the Negro people” — Paul Laurence Dunbar: “Representative American Negroes” — T. T. Fortune: “The Negro’s place in American life at the present day”

    Black History by Black Scholars

    This list is chronological.

      Two pages of Kletzing and Crogman's Progress of the Race
    • Wood, Norman Barton. The White Side of a Black Subject: A Vindication of the Afro-American Race: From the Landing of Slaves at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565, to the Present Time. Chicago, 1897. [Rare Collection E185 .W87]
    • Stanford, P. Thomas. The Tragedy of the Negro in America. A Condensed History of the Enslavement, Sufferings, Emancipation, Present Condition and Progress of the Negro Race in the United States of America. Boston, 1897. [Hall Collection E185 .S79]
    • Kletzing, H. F. and W. H. Crogman. Progress of a Race, Or, the Remarkable Advancement of the American Negro: From the Bondage of Slavery, Ignorance and Poverty, to the Freedom of Citizenship, Intelligence, Affluence, Honor and Trust. Ferguson, 1900. [Hall Collection E185 .K642 1900b]
    • Washington, Booker T. The Story of the Negro: The Rise of the Race from Slavery. Doubleday, Page, 1909. [Alabama Collection E185 .W316 1909 v.1-2]
    • Scott, Emmett J. Scott’s Official History of the American Negro in the World War. Homewood Press, 1919. [Hall Collection D639.N4 S3]
    • Du Bois, W. E. B. The Gift of Black Folk; the Negroes in the Making of America. Stratford, 1924. [Hall Collection E185 .D83]
    • Wright, Richard, and Edwin Rosskam. 12 Million Black Voices; a Folk History of the Negro in the United States. Viking, 1941. [Alabama Collection E185.6 .W9]
    • Woodson, Carter Godwin. Negro Makers of History. Associated Publishers, 1942. [Hall Collection E185 .W895 1942x]
    • Redding, J. Saunders. The Lonesome Road: The Story of the Negro’s Part in America. Doubleday, 1958. [Crowley Collection E185.61 .R298]
    • Bennett, Lerone, Jr. Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America, 1619-1964. Penguin, 1966. [Hall Collection E185 .B4 1966a]
    • Lincoln, C. Eric. The Negro Pilgrimage in America. Bantam Books, 1967. [Hall Collection E185 .L47]
    • Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Making of America. Collier Books, 1968. [Hall Collection E185 .Q2 1968]
    • James, C. L. R. A History of Negro Revolt. Haskell House, 1969. [Hall Collection E185.61 .J16 1969]
    • Toppin, Edgar Allan. A Biographical History of Blacks in America since 1528. McKay, 1971. [Hall Collection E185.96 .T66]

    Civil Rights Movement

    Note: The placement of an item or collection in this section doesn’t indicate the perspective of the creator, just that the piece is about the topic. There will be some items critical of the movement.

    Books and Other Publications

      Cover of Lomax's The Negro Revolt
    • Alabama: the test of freedom. New York: N.A.A.C.P. Legal Defense and Educational Fund, 1965. [Alabama Collection KF4893 .A43 1965]
    • Conference on the Deep South: ways and means to integration, Friday-Saturday, April 13-14, 1962. Alabama: , 1962. [Alabama Collection E185.92 .C66 1962]
    • Aptheker, Herbert. Riding to freedom ; the new secession – and how to smash it. New York: New Century, 1961. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .A635 1961x]
    • Burnham, Louis E. Smash the chains. New York: American Youth for Democracy, 1946. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .B958 1946]
    • Clarke, Jacquelyne Johnson. These rights they seek ; a comparison of goals and techniques of local civil rights organizations. Washington D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1962. [Alabama Collection E185.93 .A3 C55]
    • Douglass, Frederick. Proceedings of the civil rights mass-meeting held at Lincoln Hall, October 22, 1883. Washington D.C.: C. P. Farrell, 1883. [Rare Collection E185.3 .D6 1883x]
    • Handlin, Oscar. Fire-bell in the night: the crisis in civil rights. Boston: Little, Brown, 1964. [Hall Collection E185.61 .H23]
    • Killian, Lewis M., and Charles M. Grigg. Racial crisis in America: leadership in conflict. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964. [Rare Collection E185.61 .K49]
    • Lomax, Louis E. The negro revolt. New York: New American Library, 1963. [Hall Collection E185.61 .L668 1963x]
    • Republican National Committee. To men and women who are tired of double-talk about civil rights .. and want a president who will give them action!. Washington D.C.: Republican National Committee, 1948. [Alabama Collection E748.D48 T6 1948x]
    • Williams, Robert Franklin. Negroes with guns. New York: Marzani & Munsell, 1962. [Rare Collection F264.M75 W5]
    • Young, Whitney M., Jr. To be equal . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. [Hall Collection E185.61 .Y73]

    Oral History Audio and Collections

      Cover of Dittmer's Local People
    • “Interview with Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Shuttlesworth was one of the central figures in the Civil Rights Movement.He discusses the role of the NAACP and churches, dealing with opposition from the Ku Klux Klan and Bull Connor, and the unwillingness of whites to speak up.
    • “Interview with Arthur Shores, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Shores was an attorney involved in the Civil Rights struggle, including helping Autherine Lucy gain admittance to the University of Alabama in 1956.
    • Dittmer, John. Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi. University of Illinois Press, 1994. [Huie Collection E185.93.M6 D58 1994]
    • Hampton, Henry. Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s through the 1980s. Bantam Books, 1990. [Hall Collection E185.61 .H224 1990]
    • Huntley, Horace, and John W. McKerley. Foot Soldiers for Democracy: The Men, Women, and Children of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. University of Illinois Press, 2009. [Alabama Collection F334.B69 N438 2009]
    • Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. Penguin, 1988. [Crowley Collection KF4757 .W52 1988]

    Artifacts and Ephemera

    Movement and Countermovement

    Cover of report from West Virginia Human Rights Commission 1961-1962

    The John C. Payne papers (MSS.1114) are a collection of books, pamphlets, and other literature from civil rights groups, government commissions, and white supremacist organizations during the desegregation era. This includes

    • Government reports on civil rights in various states
    • Reports from the Tuskegee Institute, a black institution of higher learning
    • Pamphlets from the Citizens Council, a white supremacist organization, including their periodical, The Citizen (Oct. 1961-Mar. 1968).
    • Reports and pamphlets from the Southern Regional Council, a majority-white reform organization promoting racial equality
    • Pamphlets from the United States Commission on Civil Rights, including its periodical Civil Rights Digest

    White Supremacy and Segregationism

    Note: The placement of an item or collection in this section doesn’t indicate the perspective of the creator, just that the piece is about the topic. There will be some items critical of these movements.

    Books and Other Publications

      Cover of Walters's As the Pendulum Swings...
    • Birmingham Committee to Preserve the American Republic. Every vote for the Civil Rights Act of 1963 is a nail for the coffin of the American republic. Birmingham, AL:  Birmingham Committee to Preserve the American Republic, 1963. [Alabama Collection KF4756 .E93 1963x]
    • Edwards, Lee, and Terry Catchpole. Behind the civil rights mask . Independence Press, 1965. [Hall Collection JC599 .E38 1965x]
    • Evans, H. W. Is the Ku Klux Klan constructive or destructive? Haldeman-Julius Co., 1924. [Alabama Collection HS2330.K63 E934 1924]
    • Evins, R. B. White supremacy endangered!: the South must continue democratic to avoid legislation to enforce the 15th Amendment. Jefferson Co. Democratic Campaign Committee, 1928. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .E93 1928]
    • Haldeman-Julius, E. K. K. K.; the kreed of the klansmen. Haldeman-Julius Co., 1924. [Alabama Collection HS2330.K63 H3]
    • Knowland, William F., John G. Crommelin, and John O. Beaty. Civil rights & secret police. How supreme is the Supreme Court? America entering police state?. 1957. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .C58 1957x]
    • Ku Klux Klan. Constitution and laws of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (incorporated). Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 1921. [Hall Collection HS2330.K6 A5 1921ax]
    • —. The practice of Klanishness. Ku Klux Press, 1918. [Rare Collection HS2330.K63 K87 1918]
    • Ku Klux Klan secrets exposed : attitude toward Jews, Catholics, foreigners, and Masons : fraudulent methods used, atrocities committed in name of order. E. A. Cook, 1922. [Rare Collection HS2330.K63 K9]
    • National Committee for the Defense of Civil Rights in Tampa (U.S.). Tampa — tar and terror. National Committee for the Defense of Civil Rights in Tampa, 1935. [Rare Collection HS2330.K63 N38 1935]
    • Walters, Robert J. As the pendulum swings ..: a study of the radical trend in the civil rights movement. Los Angeles, 1965. [Alabama Collection JC599 .W35]

    Artifacts and Ephemera

    • Ku Klux Klan songbook (MSS.0122)
      • Folder of typewritten lyrics to thirteen Klan songs, based on popular, patriotic, and religious songs, originating from Danville, Kentucky.
    • R. L. Hanvey collection (MSS.0624)
      • A copy of the handbook Kloran (5th ed.), a leather wallet with the Klan seal, and a group photo of unidentified Ku Klux Klan women, belonging to a member in Birmingham, Alabama.
    • Women of the KKK Collection (MSS.2906)
      • Letters, receipts, and robe order forms from the Women of the KKK of Michigan.
    • Ku Klux Klan Pamphlet (MSS.3892)
      • Pamphlet containing the names of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, residents who “signed the petition sent to Governor [George] Wallace,” presumably regarding the integration of the University of Alabama in 1963, and the names of the employers of the signers, illustrated with cartoons and with photos of James Hood and Vivian Malone.


    This section includes materials which provide information on the Civil Rights Movement or African American life, including newspapers and clippings, government reports (especially from the United States Commission on Civil Rights), and the papers of members of congress active during this time.

    News and Documents

    • Alabama Citizen
      • Weekly African American newspaper, 1947-1963, published in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Our collection runs through Oct. 1961, at which point the newspaper moves to Mobile, Alabama. It was eventually merged with the Mobile Beacon.
    • Harry Mell Ayers papers (MSS.0097)
      • Papers of this New Deal Democrat and Civil Rights supporter who owned the Anniston Star newspaper, including professional correspondence on editorials, letters to the editor, and events of the times; personal correspondence with other newspapermen, educators, and statesmen; and copies of editorials and clippings on Alabama politics, Anniston, education, the Federal Government, foreign affairs, religion, the South and segregation.
    • Peter Archibald Carmichael papers (MSS.0280)
      • Lecture notes, publications, and professional files of this Alabama native and Lousiana State University professor, on subjects including logic, religion, language, labor arbitration, and civil rights/segregation.
    • Civil Rights, Marion, Alabama Police Department (MSS.0304)
      • Papers saved by the chief of Marion, Alabama, police including legislative reports, police reports, photos, newspaper articles, letters, affidavits concerning demonstrations in Marion, Selma, and Montgomery, Alabama.
    • Tuskegee Airmen Collection  (MSS.1446)
      • Photocopied articles, clippings, press releases, programs, membership rosters, and memoirs relating to the Tuskegee Airmen, the group of men who participated in the first pilot training program for African-Americans during World War II.
    • Mignon Smith and Carol Bennett Alabama Radio Network Papers (MSS.3369)
      • Newspaper clippings, transcripts of interviews, press releases and presidential convention media packets, covering people and events and their influence on Alabama, includes files on various civil rights topics.

    Government Reports

    • Alexander, George J. Civil rights U.S.A.: public schools: cities in the North and West, 1963, Buffalo. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection LA339.B9 A84 1963]
    • Hannah, John A. Freedom to the free: century of emancipation, 1863-1963: a report to the President. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection E185.61 .U582 1963]
    • President’s Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership. Negro housing; report of the Committee on Negro Housing. Washington D.C.: USGPO, 1931. [Hall Collection HD7286 .P8 1931b vol.6]
    • Sheeler, John Reuben. The Negro American: a progress report. USGPO, 1960. [Rare Collection E185.61 .S4 1960x]
    • Unites States. President’s Committee on Civil Rights. To secure these rights, the report of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1947. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 A32 1947]
    • Wright, Harry K. Civil rights U.S.A.: public schools, southern states 1963, Texas. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection LC212.622.T48 W75 1963]

    From the United States Commission on Civil Rights


    • 1961 Commission on Civil Rights report. USGPO, 1961. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 A336 1961x]
    • Administration of justice in Mississippi; a report to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 A336 1963]
    • Constitutional principle vs community practice: a survey of the gap in Florida: report of the Florida Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection E185.61 .U5824 1963]
    • Employment in Washington, D. C.: problems and progress;. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection E185.93.D6 U6 1963]
    • Equal protection of the laws in North Carolina: report of the North Carolina Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 N8 1962]
    • Excerpts from the 1961 Commission on Civil Rights report: including all findings and recommendations made by the Commission in its five-volume report. USGPO, 1961. [Rare Collection KF4749 .A3 1961]
    • Hearings before the Hearings held in Detroit, Michigan, December 14, 1960 [and] December 15, 1960. USGPO, 1961. [Rare Collection E185.93.M5 A5 1961]
    • Hearings before the Hearings held in Los Angeles, California, January 25, 1960, January 26, 1960; San Francisco, California, January 27, 1960, January 28, 1960. USGPO, 1960. [Rare Collection F870.A1 U5 1960]
    • Hearings before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Newark, New Jersey, September 11-12, 1962. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection F144.N6 U5 1962]
    • Hearings before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Phoenix, Arizona, February 3, 1962. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection F819.P57 A57 1962]
    • Hearings before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: Hearings held in Memphis, Tennessee, June 25-26, 1962. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection F444.M5 U5 1962]
    • Hearings before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: Hearings held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 27, 1960, September 28, 1960, May 5, 1961, May 6, 1961. USGPO, 1961. [Rare Collection E185.93.L6 U53 1961]
    • Interim report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 C595 1963x]
    • One nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all: an abridgement of the Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, 1959. USGPO, 1959. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 A3362 1959]
    • Report, 1959, of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1959. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 A336 1959]
    • The National Conference and the reports of the State Advisory Committees to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1959. USGPO, 1960. [Rare Collection JC599.U5 A336 1960]


    • Civil rights U.S.A.: public schools, cities in the North and West, 1962. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection LB3062 .U63 1962]
    • Civil rights U.S.A.: Public schools, southern states, 1962. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection LA209.2 .A47 1962]
    • Conference before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: Fourth Annual Education Conference on Problems of Segregation and Desegregation of Public Schools: May 3, 1962 .. May 4, 1962 .. Washington, D.C. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection L112 .H73 1962]
    • Conference before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: Third Annual Conference on Problems of Schools in Transition from the Educator’s Viewpoint: February 25, 1961 .. February 26, 1961 .. Williamsburg, Va. USGPO, 1961. [Rare Collection LA210 .C66 1961]
    • Education: conference before the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1959. [Rare Collection KF4151 .A2 1959]
    • Public education in Arkansas, 1963, still separate and still unequal; a report of the Arkansas Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection LC212.522.A8 U54 1963]
    • Public education: 1964 staff report. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection LB3062 .U57 1964]
    • Public Education; 1963 staff report. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection LB3062 .U5 1963]
    • Report on racial imbalance in the Boston public schools; by the Massachusetts State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1965. [Rare Collection LA306.B7 U5 1965]
    • Synopsis of conference before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: problems of segregation and desegregation of public schools. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection LC212.52 .E3 1962]

    Housing and Employment

    • Civil rights U.S.A.: housing in Washington, D.C. USGPO, 1962. [Rare Collection E185.89.H6 U47 1962]
    • Discrimination in housing in the Boston metropolitan area; report. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection E185.89.H6 U470 1963]
    • Family housing and the Negro serviceman;. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection E185.89.H6 U47 1963]
    • Family relocation under urban renewal in Connecticut; problems and proposals in a typical Federal Government program involving relocation;. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection HD7303.C8 A56 1963]
    • Hearings before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: housing: hearings held in New York, N.Y., January 2, 1959. USGPO, 1959. [Rare Collection KF4749 .U54 1959 v.2]
    • Report on New Jersey, housing, employment opportunities, and apprenticeship training. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection F145.N4 U5 1963]
    • Report on Maryland: employment. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection HD4903.5.U58 A48 1964]
    • Reports on apprenticeship. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection E185.8 .U553 1964]
    • Urban renewal programs and their effects on racial minority group housing in three Iowa cities; report of the Iowa State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection E185.89.H6 U47 1964a]

    Other Topics

    • Hearings before the United States Commission on Civil Rights: voting; hearing held in Montgomery, Alabama, December 8, 9, January 9, 1959. USGPO, 1959. [Alabama Collection KFA420.85.R4 H42 1959x]
    • Negro airmen in a northern community: discrimination in Rapid City, South Dakota. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection F659.R2 U5 1963]
    • Police-minority group relations in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay area; report of the California Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, August 1963. USGPO, 1963. [Rare Collection California Advisory Committee.]
    • Report on Buffalo health facilities. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection RA448.5.N4 U56 1964]
    • Report on New York City health facilities. USGPO, 1964. [Rare Collection RA448.5.N4 U58 1964]

    Congressional Papers

    Tom Bevill papers (MSS.0152)

    • Bevill was a U.S. Representative from Alabama, 1967-1997
    • See the following materials
      • Legislative Materials > Legislative Office Files > 91st Congress Second Session 1970 – Civil Rights (Box 6361)
      • Legislative Materials Legislative Office Files > 100th Congress Second Session 1988 – Legislative Issues (Judiciary – Civil Rights) (Box 6467)
      • Sponsored and Co-sponsored Legislation > 91st Congress, 1969-1970 – H.R. 116, Civil Rights Act (Box 6546)
      • Miscellaneous > Subjects and Persons > Schools – Integration & Segregation (Box 6735)

    Lister Hill papers (MSS.0670)

    • Hill was a U.S. Representative and Senator from Alabama, 1920s-1960s
    • See the following materials
      • Senatorial papers 1946-1968 > Racial, 1939-1967 (Boxes 670.376 & 670.377)
      • Civil Rights (Box 670-710)
      • Agriculture and Civil Rights Files (Box 670.711)
      • Speeches and Press Releases on Civil Rights, Defense, and Economics (Box 670.792)

    Samuel Francis Hobbs papers (MSS.0682)

    • Hobbs was a U.S. Representative from Alabama, 1934-1951
    • See the following materials
      • Correspondence, A-Z > “Amerasia” — Anti-Lynching > Anti-Lynching [various folders] (Box 682.003)
      • Correspondence, A-Z > National Labor Relations Board — Negroes > Negroes [various folders] (Box 682.032)
      • Correspondence, A-Z > Peace – Portal-to-Portal > Poll Tax [various folders] (Box 682.033)
      • Correspondence, A-Z > Salaries – Southern Revolt > Segregation (Box 682.039)

    Kenneth Allison Roberts papers (MSS.1198)

    • Roberts was a U.S. Representative from Alabama, 1963-1965
    • See the following materials
      • Box 2137 > Civil Rights
      • Box 2137 > Oxford Mississippi Race Riots
      • Box 2137 > Racial Matters
      • Box 2137 > Segregation and Civil Rights

    Armistead I. Selden Jr. papers (MSS.1244)

    • Selden was an Alabama State Representative and a U.S. Representative from Alabama, 1953-1969
    • See the following materials
      • Box 7 – 1955/1956 > Alabama – Segregation
      • Box 9 – 1956/1957 > Alabama – Segregation [various folders]
      • Box 17 – 1958/1959 > Alabama, State of – Segregation [4 folders]
      • Box 23 – 1960 > Alabama, State of – Segregation
      • Box 46 – 1963 > Civil Rights Bill – Correspondence [various folders]
      • Box 57 – 1964 > Civil Rights Bill – Legislation – Correspondence [various folders]
      • Box 70 – 1965 > Selma, Voting Rights [various folders]
      • Box 77 – 1966 > Segregation
      • Box 94 – 1968 > Segregation
      • Box 103 – Speeches > [various folders, re: Civil Rights Act of 1966, Voting Rights Act, violence, Martin Luther King, Kennedy, University Integration]


    This section focuses on special topics within the larger umbrella of Civil Rights, including segregation, civil rights activities (marches, sit-ins, etc.), lynching and mob violence, voting and politics, and labor. Some of these topics may also be discussed in other sections above, particularly in the section on Information Sources.

    Segregation and Desegregation

    • Dabbs, James McBride. The Southern Heritage. Knopf, 1958. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .D2]
    • Edmonds, Richard W. Segregation, Is It Justified? Muscogee Pub. Co., 1957. [Rare Collection E185.61 .E24 1957]
    • Graves, John Temple. The South Won’t Surrender. American Mercury, 1956. [Agee Collection E185.61 .G79 1956x]
    • Ingram, T. Robert. Essays on Segregation. St. Thomas Press, 1960. [Rare Collection BT734.3 .I5]
    • Lively, Earl. The Invasion of Mississippi. American Opinion, 1963. [Rare Collection E185.93.M6 L5]
    • Martin, John Barlow. The Deep South Says “Never.” Ballantine Books, 1957. [Hall Collection E185.61 .M36]
    • Michael, W. E. The Age of Error. Vantage Press, 1957. [Alabama Collection LB3062 .M5]
    • Peck, James. Freedom Ride. Simon and Schuster, 1962. [Rare Collection E185.61 .P43]
    • Pierce, Julius A. Black Tide. Jamax Books, 1963. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .P5x]

    In Education

    • Alford, Dale. The Case of the Sleeping People (Finally Awakened by Little Rock School Frustrations). Little Rock, 1959. [Rare Collection LA242.L5 A7]
    • Barrett, Russell H. Integration at Ole Miss. Quadrangle Books, 1965. [Rare Collection]
    • Carmichael, Omer. The Louisville Story. Simon and Schuster, 1957. [Alabama Collection LA 294.L6 C3]
    • Holden, Anna. A First Step Toward School Integration. Congress of Racial Equality, 1958. [Rare Collection LC214.23.N3 H6x]
    • Kilpatrick, James Jackson. The Southern Case for School Segregation. Crowell-Collier Press, 1962. [Hall Collection E185.61 .K5]
    • Oxford: A Warning for Americans. Mississippi Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1962. [Rare Collection LD3413 .M5x]
    • Record, Wilson. Little Rock, U.S.A. Chandler Pub. Co., 1960. [Rare Collection LA242.L5 R4]
    • Southern Regional Council. Schools in the South: Answers for Action. Atlanta, 1954. [Alabama Collection KF4155.Z9 S64 1954]
    • —. School Desegregation 1966: The Slow Undoing. Atlanta, 1966. [Alabama Collection LA210 .S64 1966]
    • Smith, Lillian. Now Is the Time. Viking, 1955. [Hall Collection E185.61 .S646]
    • Trillin, Calvin. An Education in Georgia: The Integration of Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes. Viking, 1964. [Hall Collection LB3062 .T7]
    • Red, D. B. A Corrupt Tree Bringeth Forth Evil Fruit: A Plea for Racial Segregation Based on Scripture, History and World Conditions. Hattiesburg, Miss., 1956. [Rare Collection E185.61 .R5x]
    • Talmadge, Herman E. You and Segregation. Vulcan Press, 1955. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .T2]
    • Tyler, Franklin Adair. All God’s Chillun: Southerners View Forced Integration. 1958. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .T95]
    • Vander Zanden, James Wilfrid. Race Relations in Transition; the Segregation Crisis in the South. Random House, 1965. [Hall Collection E185.61 .V33]
    • Wakefield, Dan. Revolt in the South. Grove Press, 1960. [Rare Collection E185.61 .W15]

    Marches, Sit-Ins, Boycotts, and Other Activities

      Page from The Story of Selma, 1965
    • “Interview with Evelyn Howard, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Howard, a teacher, discusses the role of schools in the Civil Rights Movement (or lack thereof) and witnessing a march carried out in Birmingham by Martin Luther King Jr.
    • “Interview with Leona Williams, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Williams, a domestic worker, discusses her experiences at marches during the Civil Rights Movement.
    • “Interview with Ella Pegues, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Pegues recalls her active role in the Civil Rights Movement, including participating in marches and sit-in and being jailed; and her views on racism and social conditioning and on figures including Fred Shuttlesworth, Martin Luther King Jr., George Wallace, and Bull Connor.
    • “Interview with Eva Russell, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Russell, who ran a cafe that became a hub of civil rights activity, discusses her participation in the movement and registration to vote.
    • “Interview with Rosa Jackson, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Jackson, a domestic and custodial worker, discusses life during the Civil Rights Movement, including her fear of breaking the law and raising the ire of the Ku Klux Klan.
    • E.D. Nixon Article Reprints (MSS.2963)
    • Fields, Uriah J. The Montgomery story; the unhappy effects of the Montgomery bus boycott. Exposition Press, 1959. [Alabama Collection E185.89.T8 F5]
    • Gray, Fred D. The Children Coming On: A Retrospective of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Oral Histories of Boycott Participants. Black Belt Press, 1997. [Alabama Collection F334.M79 N42 1997]
    • Ramsey, Paul. Christian ethics and the sit-in. Association Press, 1961. [Rare Collection BT734.3 .R3]
    • The story of Selma; or, The other side of the coin. Selma and Dallas County Chamber of Commerce, 1965. [Alabama Collection F334.S4 S86 1965]
    • Wanted: for telling the truth about Selma. 1967. [Alabama Collection F330 .W35 1967x]

    Lynching, Mob Violence, and Other Issues of Justice

    • William Bradford Huie collection (MSS.2728)
    • Joe W. Burleson deposition (MSS.0232)
    • Commission on Interracial Cooperation. The crime of mob murder: a challenge to every American citizen. 1936. [Alabama Collection HV6464 .C74 1936]
    • Conrad, Earl, and Eugene Gordon. Equal justice under law. Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor, 1944. [Alabama Collection E185.61 .C79 1944x]
    • Hays, Arthur Garfield. Trial by prejudice. Covici, Friede, 1933. [Hall Collection KF220 .H38]
    • Herndon, Angelo. The Scottsboro boys: four freed! five to go! Workers Library Publishers, 1937. [Alabama Collection KF224.S34 H47 1937]
    • Patterson, Haywood. Scottsboro boy. V. Gollancz, 1950. [Alabama Collection KF224.S34 P3 1950a]
    • Raper, Arthur F. The tragedy of lynching. University of North Carolina Press, 1933. [Alabama Collection HV6464 .R3]
    • Scroggs, William O. Mob violence: an enemy of both races: an address before the Southern Sociological Congress at New Orleans, La., April 19, 1916. 1916. [Rare Collection HV6457 .S3x]
    • Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching. Lynchings and what they mean. 1931. [Alabama Collection HV6457 .S6]
    • —. The plight of Tuscaloosa: a case study of conditions in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, 1933. 1933. [Alabama Collection HV6466 1933 .S6]
    • Washington, Booker T. Booker T. Washington gives facts and condemns lynchings in a statement telegraphed to the New York World. Baltimore, 1908. [Alabama Collection HV6457 .W38]
    • Wells, Ida B. Southern horrors; lynch law in all its phases by Ida B. Wells. Thomason & Duncan, 1892. [Microfilm Collection T92 no.2]

    Voting and Politics

      Cover of Gitin's This Bright Light of Ours
    • “Interview with James Armstrong, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Armstrong, a barber, discusses life under segregation, attempts to integrate, and his attempts to register to vote.
    • “Interview with Thelma Walton, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Walton discusses her experience of segregation and her registration to vote with the help of her white employer, as well as her fear of the Ku Klux Klan.
    • “Interview with Rev. C. C. Welch, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Welch, a minister, discusses his attempts to register to vote and the role of the church in the Civil Rights Movement.
    • Gitin, Maria. The Bright Light of Ours: Stories from the 1965 Voting Rights Fight. University of Alabama Press, 2014. [Alabama Collection JK1929.A2 G58 2014]
    • Jones, Lewis, and Stanley Smith. Tuskegee, Alabama: voting rights and economic pressure. Anti-defamation League of B’nai B’rith, with the cooperation of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America, 1958. [Alabama Collection E185.615 .J65]
    • King, Jr., Martin Luther. SCLC voter registration memo. 1966. [Alabama Collection JK1929.A2 .K56 1966]
    • Strong, Donald S. Negroes, ballots, and judges ; national voting rights legislation in the Federal courts. University of Alabama Press, 1968. [Alabama Collection KF4893 .S8]
    • Taper, Bernard. Gomillion versus Lightfoot ; the Tuskegee gerrymander case. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. [Alabama Collection JK1348.A2 Z5 1962]


    • “Interview with H. D. Coke, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Coke, a journalist, discusses his involvement in the labor and Civil Rights Movements as well as life under Jim Crow, including attempts to register to vote.
    • “Interview with Frank Sykes, 1984,” from Working Lives Oral History Project, accessible at
      • Sykes, an industrial worker, discusses efforts to unionize at his iron pipe plant and the role played by race in those efforts.
    • Huntley, Horace, and David Montgomery. Black Workers’ Struggle for Equality in Birmingham. University of Illinois Press, 2004. [Alabama Collection HD6490.R22 U63 2004]


    The University of Alabama was in the national spotlight in June 1963, as Governor George Wallace made his famous “Stand in the Schoolhouse Door.” Though the integration of UA by James Hood and Vivian Malone did not result in violence, the same cannot be said for the first attempt in 1956. That year, Autherine Lucy enrolled and attended classes but was ultimately expelled because the administration could not protect her against the mobs protesting her presence. This section includes sources about those events.

    Secondary Sources

    These recent works are not only helpful sources of information, but they often point back to specific materials within our collections.

    • Clark, E. Culpepper. The Schoolhouse Door: Segregation’s Last Stand at the University of Alabama. Oxford University Press, 1993. [Alabama Collection LD73 .C57 1993]
    • Hollars, B. J. Opening the Doors: The Desegregation of the University of Alabama and the Fight for Civil Rights in Tuscaloosa. University of Alabama Press, 2013. [Reference Collection LD73 .H65 2013]
    • Tilford, Earl H. Turning the Tide: The University of Alabama in the 1960S. University of Alabama Press, 2014. [Reference Collection LD73 .T55 2014]
      • Covers desegregation as well as the student protest movement of the late 1960s, which at UA involved the concerns and demands of the new and active black student population.

    Primary Sources

    1956: Autherine Lucy

      Closeup of the front page of the Crimson White newspaper, February 14 1956
    • Crimson White (campus newspaper)
      • February 7, 1956 — Coverage of Autherine Lucy’s first day in attendance
      • February 14, 1956 — Coverage of reactions to Autherine Lucy/desegregation, including numerous letters to the editor
      • February 14, 1956 — Note from the editors on the letters they’ve received about Autherine Lucy/desegregation, pgs. 1 & 8
    • President Carmichael, Oliver C. (RG.013)
      • President of the University of Alabama, 1953-1957
      • See the following materials
        • Negro Applications (Accession 19800120, Box 014)
        • Negro Education (Accession 19800120, Box 014)
        • Letters to Dr. Carmichael about segregation (Accession 19800120, Box 017)
        • Newspaper Clippings 1954-1956 (Accession 19800120, Box 014)
        • Race Question (Accession 19800120, Box 016)
        • Segregation (Accession 19800120, Box 017)
        • Correspondence from outside the University concerning Autherine Lucy (Accession 19820768, Boxes 001-003)
    • Gus Robinson Photographs (2009.195)
      • Photographs taken in February 1956 when Autherine Lucy became the first African American to enroll in and attend classes at the The University of Alabama. Robinson was a UA staff photographer.
    • James William Oakley Jr. Photographs (2010.020)
      • Photographs taken by James William Oakley Jr. during the week that Autherine Lucy, the first African American student at The University of Alabama, enrolled in February 1956. Oakley was a UA student.
    • Donn Sanford Photographs (2010.021)
      • Photographs of the first African American student admitted to the University of Alabama, Autherine Lucy, enrolling at The University of Alabama in February 1956.
    • Buford Boone papers (MSS.0187)
      • Publisher of the Tuscaloosa News, 1947-1968
      • See the following materials
        • Correspondence [re: Autherine Lucy] (Boxes 1-6)
        • Editorials on the “Autherine Lucy Incident”- 1956 (Box 258)
        • Scrapbooks > Career Tuscaloosa News [1] (Box 262)
        • Scrapbooks > Chronological [2] (Box 265)
        • Scrapbooks > Tuscaloosa News (Box 266)
        • Scrapbooks > Unarranged [1, re: Autherine Lucy] (Box 267)
    • Louis D. Corson papers (MSS.0360)
      • The collection contains the papers of Louis D. Corson, Dean of Men at The University of Alabama from August 1955 through December 1957. Included are correspondence, documents, newspaper and magazine articles, as well as photographs concerning the on-campus riots over the enrollment of Autherine Lucy on February 3-6, 1956. There are also copies of articles and magazines dealing with the state of college and university education and integration across the country.
    • Autherine Lucy papers (MSS.0881)
      • Court documents dealing with a suit brought by Autherine Lucy and Polly Anne Myers against the University of Alabama, as well as an invitation to her 1956 wedding and a newspaper clipping written when she graduated from UA with her masters in elementary education.

    1963: James Hood & Vivian Malone

      Closeup of the front page of the Crimson White newspaper, June 13 1963
    • Crimson White (campus newspaper)
      • June 9, 1963 — immediately before the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
      • June 13, 1963 — coverage of the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
      • June 27, 1963 — followup to Stand in the Schoolhouse Door, including an editorial by James Hood and numerous letters to the editor
    • Rebel Underground
      • Newsletter created by those opposed to integration at Southern colleges. Different versions were published at various schools, including Clemson, Ole Miss, and UA. We have three issues from February/March, August, and November 1963.
    • President Rose, Frank A. (RG.006)
      • President of the University of Alabama, 1958-1969
      • See the following materials:
        • General Corr. 1963 > Conf. Activities – Integration Crank Let. (Accession 19803921, Box 005)
        • News Headquarters for Integration 1963 (Accession 19909696, Box 004)
        • Newspaper Clippings Integration UA 1963 (Accession 19909696, Box 004)
    • Integration (RG.030)
    • Camille Maxwell Elebash Papers (MSS.0478)
      • Co-editor of Graphic, an independent Tuscaloosa newspaper, 1957-1979
      • See Schoolhouse Door (Box 0478.0001)