Historian; University professor of history. Born– August 18, 1929, Sandy Ridge. Married– Miriam Arnold, 1951. Children– Four. Education– Alabama Polytechnic Institute, B.S., 1950; M.S., 1951; University of North Carolina, Ph.D., 1959. Professor of history at Florida State University, 1961-96. Served as director of FSU’s off campus program at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, 1959-1961. Published articles in historical journals; served on several editorial boards. Member of the Southern Historical Association and Agricultural History Society. Awarded emeritus status at FSU on his retirement, 1996. Honorary doctorate, University of West Alabama, 2008.


Directory of American Scholars, 1982.; Contemporary Authors online;  Marquis Who’s Who online


Antebellum Thomas County, 1825-1861. Tallahassee, Fla.; Florida State University, 1963.

A Bibliography for Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida. S.l.; s.n., 1981.

The One-Gallused Rebellion; Agrarianism in Alabama, 1865-1896. Baton Rouge, La.; Louisiana State University Press, 1970. (2nd ed., University of Alabama Press, 2001).

Outposts on the Gulf, Saint George Island and Apalachicola. Pensacola, Fla.; University Presses of Florida, 1986.

Pebble Hill; the Story of a Plantation. Tallahassee, Fla.; Sentry Press, 1972.

Thomas County During the Civil War. Tallahassee, Fla.; Florida State University Press, 1964.

Thomas County, 1865-1900. Tallahassee, Fla; Florida State University Press, 1973.


Alabama:  The History of a Deep South State.  University of Alabama Press, 1994.

An Alabama Legacy:  Images of a State.  Donning, 1993.

At the Water’s Edge:  A Pictorial and Narrative History of Apalachicola and Franklin County.  Donning, 1997.

August Reckoning:  Jack Turner and Racism in Post-Civil War Alabama.  LSU Press, 1973.

Convicts, Coal, and the Banner Mine Tragedy. Tuscaloosa, Ala.; University of Alabama Press, 1986.

The Croom Family and Goodwood Plantation:  Land, Litigation, and Southern Lives.  University of Georgia Press, 1999.

Favored Land, Tallahassee– a History of Tallahassee and Leon County. Norfolk, Va.; Donning, 1988.

Labor Revolt in Alabama:  The Great Strike of 1894.  University of Alabama Press, 1970.

Stephen S. Renfroe:  Alabama’s Outlaw Sheriff.  Sentry Press, 1972.

Tallahassee, Leon County:A History and Bibliography.  Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, 1986.


A Bibliography of the County Histories of Alabama.  Birmingham Public Library Press, 1991.