Educator. Born– June, 1870, near Roanoke, to parents who were former slaves. Married– Mary Ella Patterson. Education– Study at Tuskegee Institute, 1890-1898, while employed as farm worker, office boy, and buggy driver for Booker T. Washington. Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College, MA, 1908; further study in summer sessions at Harvard College. Publisher of a newspaper for Afro-Americans in Alabama; founder, with another Tuskegee graduate, of a school at Snow Hill, Ala.; founder, in 1903, of the school that became Utica Normal and Industrial Institute, Utica, Miss.; director of that school for forty years, until his death.  The Library at the school, now the Utica campus of Hinds Community College, was named in his honor when it was dedicated in 2003.


Growing up Black, edited by David Jay; Lives of Mississippi Authors, 1817-1967.


Black Man’s Burden. New York; Neale Pub. Co., 1915.

A Negro’s Life Story. Utica, Miss.; Utica Institute Electric Printing, 1908.