Audio Specifications and Standards
From UA Libraries Digital Services Planning and Documentation
The following provides a brief overview of our standard audio specifications.
Default File/Output Settings
- masters: .wav/WAVE at 24-bit/44.1khz
- note: IASA TC-04 calls for a minimum sampling rate of 48kHz (preferably 96kHz). We will discontinue use of 44.1kHz sampling rates pending confirmation of appropriate storage space as 24/48 vs 24/44.1 should yield only an 8% increase in space requirements. Projects already underway at the 24/44.1 spec will maintain that specification. - arora, 062910. Update: given remaining storage concerns, we will continue with 24/44.1. - arora, 030911.
- typically, 2s of silence is left or created at the beginning of each .wav, with 1s at the end.
- RMS levels are typically set fairly low, to -25db
For information on derivatives, see For_Creating_Derivatives
Resources and Links:
- Digitization and Preservation Standards
- TAPE (Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe). European Commission on Preservation and Access.
- Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Tranferring Analog Discs and Tapes. (2006) Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress.
- Sound Directions - project website, maintained by Indiana University Digital Library Program.
- Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation. (2007) Casey, Mike & Bruce Gordon.
- Grammy foundation® Basic Methodology for Preservation, Conversion and Archiving Recorded Media. (revised 2008) Grammy Foundation, Santa Monica, CA.
- File Formats - from LOC Digital Preservation/Digital Formats site
- Audio Decision List